Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 9

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 8

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 7

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 6

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 5

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 4

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 3

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 2

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty Procedures

Hey readers!, I have made a list of all the steps of Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (see more on Vertical Banded Gastroplasty) as performed by Bariatric Surgeon Dr. Joseph Kamelgard.
1. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 1
2. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 2
3. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 3
4. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 4
5. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 5
6. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 6
7. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 7
8. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 8
9. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 9

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty- Step 1

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty

Dr. Khalid Mirza Gari performing the BPD (Biliopancreatic Diversion)

Walking Weight Loss

Yes, Walking can be as good as running. Walking can be a part of a good weight loss program (see more on Weight Loss Program). Walking can be gr8 way to incorporate exercise in your daily life. All you need is a pair of comfortable sport shoes. You can walk alone, with family or friends and you can make your walking a fun by listening to some good music that you like. Now saying that let's now see why you should walk and make it a part of your exercise program.
Walking regularly can help you in

  • Burning Calories (energy)
  • Losing Weight
  • Reducing blood cholesterol
  • Lowering blood pressure
  • Increasing fitness
  • Boosting bone strength
Now what more do you want?
Now for the beginners, walking is often the best exercise to get started on because:
a. It is much easy to do.
b. It can be practiced anywhere at any time.
c. No need of special equipment or health expertise to get started.
d. Progress is easy to plan and measure over time.
e. It doesn't cost you that much.
f. You can find many people like you trying to lose weight, so it will be kinda motivation for you.
g. Even a little effort can knock out some extra bit of pounds giving you beneficial results.

Walking Weight Loss Technique
You can enhance your weight loss results through walking if you pay attention to your posture while walking. Following these simple steps, I bet you can improve your results:
1. Stand tall with your eyes looking straight forward, keeping your chin parallel to the ground and your shoulders back and straight and your abdominal muscles tucked in.
2. The head should be level straight. If the head is tilted forward then excess strain hits the neck and shoulders leading to undue fatigue. If you need to watch your step closely then lower your eyes, not your whole head.
3. Your arms should swing naturally and should bent at an angle 90 degree with elbow, not drawn up towards the ears. Allow your arms to pump back and forth (like tuning fork:-) along with your stride. Bending the arms can also help you to burn 5-10% more calories. Additionally, keeping the arms bent can immediately help you to pick up your pace for longer periods of time.
4. Keep focussing on taking natural steps and try to aim for speed in your stride rather than length.
5. Speed and efficiency in walking are generated by hip flexibility. If you can increase your hip flexibility, you will naturally develop a slightly longer stride.
6. Roll through your foot with each step, placing your heel down first and pushing off with the ball of your foot.
Thomas Jefferson once said "The sovereign invigorator of the body is exercise, and of all the exercises walking is the best."

Dr. Jawad performing Gastric Bypass Surgery

Running Weight Loss

Run Run and Simply Run!! running weight loss
Yes, Running has been regarded as one of the right way to burn fat. The main theme on which running works is just like that of weight loss, that is, "doing more but getting less" (see more on Weight Loss). So if you are running for weight loss, then you will lose weight only when you burn more calories than that you consume. Off the several vigorous exercises out there running is an extremely effient way to burn those extra bit of pounds. A person weighing 150-pound can burn approximately 100 calories per mile when running. So why say I won't Run?
Here are some of the tips on running that you might wanna look into:

1.Healthy Diet
Yeah running can help you to burn extra fat. But running combined with healthy balanced diet can give you better result. Try choosing foods that are less in calories. If you want high-calorie foods, then smaller portions of high-fat and high-calorie foods is OK (see more on Weight Loss Diet). Also try to eat more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables (see more on Fruits and Vegetables) and fiber-rich foods (see more on Fiber Weight Loss).
healthy weight loss dietOff the several common mistakes that runners do, one is they overcompensate for the calories burned by running with extra calories consumed from more food and beverages. Some of them find that they are gaining weight despite their exercise. So it would be great if you can keep an eye on what you are eating. You can do this by writing a journal for a few weeks. By doing this, you can see where your diet needs an improvement. The record can also keep you on track because you will think thrice (hehe) before putting that slice of Pizza in your mouth.

2. Run on a regular basis
Hard work pays off. Yes, it also comes true in case of Weight Loss. Running surely can help you lose weight but running once a week is not a good thing if you are trying to lose weight. If you find it that hard then run 3-4 times a week. Don't forget that it's always better to get some activity everyday.

3. Dieting and exercise running for weight loss
It's not a good idea to increase your exercise and go on a crash diet at the same time. If you are a runner, you need more calorie (energy) and nutrients. So you if you try to restrict what you're eating you are much more likely to get ill or injured at the same time.
Dieting will reduce your fat, muscles and water content which isn't a good thing if you're trying to lose weight. Whereas running will reduce your fat but also increase the amount of lean muscle. Further, running will improve your muscle tone, which will contribute to an improved appearance.
Dieting can be difficult to sustain, because it requires you constantly to restrict the foods that you want. Sometimes, the constraints imposed by diets are unhealthy, preventing you from eating a good variety of healthy foods.

Protein Weight Loss

A typical fat loss diet contains moderate amounts of fats, carbohydrates and large amounts of protein (see more on Weight Loss Diet). Protein helps to build and repair muscle, and it also helps to increase your metabolism and strenghten your immune system.To promote maximum muscle growth and repair, you should try to eat at least 1gram of protein per pound of bodyweight. Lean meats, egg whites, whey protein and soy protein isolate are some of the good sources of protein. protein weight lossNow I want to recommend you by starting with a diet that contains about 40% protein. Many of you here may worry that this amount of protein is too much or harmful. However, since everyone is different (size, weight, metabolism, physical stresses, lifestyle, etc.) it is almost impossible to have a standard number. I believe that any amount double (2x) your bodyweight is too much. But that's my opinion. If you don't agree to it, then better ask your physician or health care team about this. They can always give you the right strategy that can guide you throughout your journey for weight loss.
So Eat more protein, build more muscle and increase your metabolism and finally lose weight.

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty

Vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), also known as stomach stapling, is a restrictive operation for weight control. Both a band and staples are used to create a small stomach pouch. In the bottom of the pouch is an approximately one-centimeter hole through which the pouch contents can flow into the remainder of the stomach and thence onto the remainder of the gastrointestinal tract.
vertical banded gastroplasty Stomach stapling is a restrictive technique for managing obesity. The pouch limits the amount of food a patient can eat at one time and slows passage of the food. Stomach stapling is more effective when combined with a malabsorptive technique, in which part of the digestive tract is bypassed, reducing the absorption of calories and nutrients. Combined restrictive and malabsorptive techniques are called gastric bypass techniques, of which Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RGB) (see more on Gastric Bypass) is the most common. In this technique, staples are used to form a pouch that is connected to the small intestine, bypassing the lower stomach, the duodenum, and the first portion of the jejunum.This type of weight loss surgery is losing favor as more doctors begin using the adjustable gastric band. The newer adjustable band does not require cutting into the stomach and does not use any staple lines, thus making it a much safer alternative. VBG is known in the medical community as a very serious and dangerous procedure. It has been classified by the AMA as a "severely dangerous" operation.

Lose Weight With Fruits and Vegetables

Ifwoman drinking fruit juice you want to achieve ideal weight then all you need to do is eat as much fruit and vegetables as you can every day. The more fruit you eat, the more you lose weight. It's as simple as that!!!. Besides you can also enjoy some other health benefits from fruits and vegetables.
According to some Researchers of Pennsylvania State University, the excess weight can be knock out by focussing on lower calorie foods instead of cutting the overall calories. According to them, fruits and vegetables have low energy density because of their heavy weight but low calorie levels. When you take a low calorie food your metabolism rises and you can lose weight (see more on Increasing your metabolism). Also since fruits and vegetables are highly rich in fiber, our stomach can get filled quickly and thus preventing us from overeating (see more on Fiber Weight Loss).
Vegetables and fruits contain a lot of minerals and vitamins. So we can get a good supply of nutrients by eating plenty of vegetables and fruits. This also aids in making our body more energetic and active. And by being more energetic and active we can buhealthy weight loss dietrn more calories(energy) everyday and stay fit and healthy forever.
So which one will you prefer: a pizza for lunch or lots and lots of fresh fruit salads and vegetables?

Fiber Weight Loss

Ffiber and weight lossiber are plant-based foods that our bodies can't digest. It easily passes through our digestive tract without providing any nutrition and calories(energy), but yet it has got some significance in weight loss and other health benefits too.

Fiber helps to keep our bowel movements regular and prevent us from certain diseases. Fibers make our digestive tract clean and free from some cancer causing agents(Carcinogens) as well. Fiber can bind carcinogens in our intestines and move through our colon more rapidly than they otherwise would, thus reducing our risk for colon cancer. Fiber can also reduce our risk for heart disease to some extent as it transport cholesterol out of our body.
On a survey done by some researchers, People eating larger amounts of fiber-rich foods were generally healthier than those who did not.
Fiber can make us feel full sooner as it can stay in our stomach longer than other substances we eat, slowing down our rate of digestion and also avoiding us from overeating. Fiber also moves fat through our digestive system faster so that less of it is absorbed.

Meat and dairy products contain no fiber, and refined grains have had most of their fiber removed. So how can you increase your intake of fiber?
The answer is by eating more natural foods, and fewer processed foods. Here are some exampleweight loss fibers of good fiber-rich foods:
-Legumes (lentils, dry beans and peas)
-Green vegetables
-Fruits (should be fresh)
-Brown rice
-Whole grains (wheat, oats, barley)
Refined grains like white rice and those used to make white bread and sugary breakfast cereals have had most of their fiber content removed. They turn into glucose(blood sugar) very fast thus causing spike in our insulin level. So our body stops burning fat and starts storing it as plenty of energy is already available to our body. This is not a good sign for those looking forward to lose weight as burning fat is a must for weight loss (see more on Weight Loss).

Further, the insulin spike is followed by a drop in insulin level which leaves us feeling tired, depressed and hungry and wanting to eat more. Unfortunately, it'll make us to eat something else with a high sugar content. When we do, we start the cycle all over again.So we should eat foods rich in fiber which not only helps in losing weight but also helps to keep our blood sugar at a more consistent level.

Now we can conclude that more intake of fiber, more will be the weight loss. But be sure to drink plenty of water or any fluids when eating fiber-riched foods as it can cause constipation and gas problem without adequate fluids (see more on Water Weight Loss).

Water Weight Loss

water weight lossWater (like oxygen) is one of the vital components for our survival. Without water one can't imagine the life on earth.
Why is it important to drink water, especially for losing weight?
Of the several reasons, the main ones are listed below:

1. Initial weight loss is mainly due to loss of water.

2. Weight loss is the process of burning more calories than taking in (see more on Weight Loss). For this, an adequate supply of water is a must in order to function efficiently; dehydration(lack of water in your body) can slow down this fat-burning process.

3. Burning calories(energy) releases harmful toxins, similar like the exhaust coming out of your car, and water plays an important role in flushing them out of your body.

4. Weight loss diet includes a good amount of fiber. But while fiber is normally helpful to our digestive system, at the same time it can cause constipation and gas problems without adequate fluids (see more on Fiber Weight Loss). So water is necessary for us.

5. Dehydration lowers blood volume in our body due to which there will be less supply of oxygen to our muscles and a reduction in the supply of oxygen to our muscles can make us feel lousy and tired which can result in weight gain.

6. Muscles have the ability to contract. Water can assist this ability and can help in mantaining the proper muscle tone. Water can also reduce muscle and joint soreness when you are exercising.

7. Drinking water with a meal can make you feel full sooner and therefore can prevent us from overeating. But drinking water alone may not have this effect. At first our body should feel satiated (not hungry). That means we should be full of calories and nutrients.

Now question arises "How Much Water Should I Drink?"
You must hawater and weight lossve heard that you should drink at least eight 8 glasses of water a day. But there is no any hard and fast rule governing how much water an individual must drink in order to be fit. The specific amount of water that you should drink actually depends on several factors like your age, gender, weight, level of activity, and even the temperature and humidity of your environment, and your diet as well. Your diet could also make difference (see more on Weight Loss Diet). As for say, if you eat plenty of fluid-rich or say water dense foods like fruits and vegetables your need for drinking water will get lowered.
For me a good way to keep myself hydrated throughout the day is by drinking one glass of water with each meal and one between each meal.

Hypnosis for Weight Loss

What is hypnosis?
Hhypnosis for weight lossypnosis is a natural state, enhanced by mental and physical relaxation, where a person's subconscious (creative) mind can be accessed or say our subconscious mind is able to communicate with our conscious mind. Since this is where a person's memories, emotions, beliefs, and habits are stored, having access to them means that they can also be modified for the person's benefit. Recently, hypnosis is being used as an alternative treatment in different medical institutions to manage everything from pain to smoking to weight loss. Yeah don't be amazed at all because hypnosis can be as helpful as exercise for weight loss.

How does hypnosis help weight loss?
You can lose weight more effectively with hypnosis and maintain that weight loss. Hypnosis uses your subconscious (creative) mind to change your beliefs, habits and your attitudes toward food. Your subconscious mind can deal directly with the self-sabotaging part of you to help you eliminate poor, unhealthy eating patterns and replace them with fresh, positive, powerful patterns that help you lose weight and keep it off. Your subconscious mind has the power to end your struggles with food and weight loss and can help you learn to be in control of your cravings.
Further, hypnosis for weight loss is very effective when ovreating is the reason for your overweight.
The best hypnosis weight loss programs are those that are hypnosis and weight losscomprehensive in nature. These programs can help you deal with emotional eating patterns that many of us have but are unaware of (see more on Weight Loss Program). A good hypnosis weight loss program in conjunction with a good diet (see more on Weight Loss Diet) and exercise program (see more on Weight Loss Exercise) can certainly give you a great opportunity to lose weight and keep it off.

Bariatric Weight Loss Surgery

Is Bariatric Surgery An Easy Solution for Weight Loss?
Simply saying, No. According to the American Society For Bariatric Surgery, gastric reduction surgery is not an easy option for people suffering from obesity. It is a drastic step, and carries the usual pain and risks of any major gastrointestinal surgical operation.
bariatric weight loss surgeryDoes Bariatric Surgery Typically Lead to Major Weight Loss?
Yes and No. Some patients who undergo bariatric gastrointestinal surgery lose more thanbariatric surgery for weight loss 100 pounds in weight - some lose as much as 200 pounds weight. Typically, patients who undergo adjustable gastric banding procedures, such as Lap-Band (laparoscopic adjustable gastric band) lose less weight than those who have gastric bypass like Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD) or Duodenal Switch (BPD-DS). Some patients reach a normal weight, while others remain overweight, although less overweight than before. However, in order to maintain this type of weight reduction, patients must follow carefully the post-operative guidelines relating to diet and exercise. Better ask your surgeon about this!!!

Gastric Bypass

Gastric bypass surgery makesroux en y gastric bypass the stomach smaller and allows food to bypass part of the small intestine. You will feel full more quickly than when your stomach was its original size, which reduces the amount of food you eat and thus the calories consumed. Bypassing part of the intestine also results in fewer calories being absorbed. This leads to weight loss. The most common gastric bypass surgery is a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
In normal digestion, food passes through the stomach and enters the small intestine, where most of the nutrients and calories are absorbed. It then passes into the large intestine (colon), and the remaining waste is eventually excreted.
In a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the stomach is made smaller by creating a small pouch at the top of the stomach using surgical staples or a plastic band. The smaller stomach is connected directly to the middle portion of the small intestine (jejunum), bypassing the rest of the stomach and the upper portion of the small intestine (duodenum). roux en y gastric bypass surgeryThis procedure can be done by making a large incision in the abdomen (an open procedure) or by making a small incision and using small instruments and a camera to guide the surgery (laparoscopic approach).

Expectation After Surgery
This surgery usually involves a 4- to 6-day hospital stay (2 to 3 days for a laparoscopic approach). Most people can return to their normal activities within 3 to 5 weeks.
Gastric bypass surgeries may cause dumping syndrome. dumping syndrome after gastric bypass surgeryThis occurs when food moves too quickly through the stomach and intestines. It causes nausea, weakness, sweating, faintness, and possibly diarrhea soon after eating. These symptoms are made worse by eating highly refined, high-calorie foods (like sweets). In some cases you may become so weak that you have to lie down until the symptoms pass.

Why It Is Done??
Although guidelines vary, surgery is generally considered when your body mass index is 40 or higher or you have a life-threatening or disabling condition related to your weight.Your doctor may only consider doing gastric bypass surgery if you have not been able to lose weight with other treatments. The following conditions may also be required or are at least considered:
-You have been obese for at least 5 years.
-You do not have an ongoing problem with alcohol.
-You do not have untreated depression or another major psychiatric disorder.
-You are between 18 and 65 years of age.
All surgeries have risk, and it is important for you and your health professional to discuss your treatment options to decide what is best for your situation.

Is this effective??
Most people who have gastric bypass surgery quickly begin to lose weight and continue to lose weight for up to 12 months. One study noted that people lost about one-third of their excess weight (the weight above what is considered healthy) in 1 to 4 years. Some of the lost weight may be regained.The laparoscopic approach showed similar results, with 69% to 82% of excess weight lost over 12 to 54 months.

Risks common to all surgeries for weight loss include an infection in the incision, a leak from the stomach into the abdominal cavity or where the intestine is connected (resulting in an infection called peritonitis), and a blood clot in the lung (pulmonary embolism). About one-third of all people having surgery for obesity develop gallstones or a nutritional deficiency condition such as anemia or osteoporosis.Fewer than 3 in 200 (1.5%) people die after surgery for weight loss.

After a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass:
An iron and vitamin B12 deficiency occurs more than 30% of the time. About 50% of those with an iron deficiency develop anemia. The connection between the stomach and the intestines narrows (stomal stenosis) 5% to 15% of the time, leading to nausea and vomiting after eating. Ulcers develop 5% to 15% of the time. The staples may pull loose. Hernia may develop. The bypassed stomach may enlarge, resulting in hiccups and bloating.

What To Think About?
In a gastric bypass, gastric bypass before afterthe part of the intestine where many minerals and vitamins are most easily absorbed is bypassed. Because of this, you may have a deficiency in iron, calcium, magnesium, or vitamins. This can lead to long-term problems, such as osteoporosis. To prevent vitamin and mineral deficiencies, you may need to work with a dietitian to plan meals, and you may need to take extra vitamin B12 as pills, shots, or nasal spray. There is also a possibility that you may develop gallstones after gastric bypass. Sometimes the gallbladder is removed as part of the surgery. But if your gallbladder is not removed, then you may need to take medicine to prevent gallstones. Early studies of the laparoscopic approach to surgery for obesity suggest that it reduces recovery time and postsurgery complications

Implantable Gastric Stimulation

This procedure where a device similar to a heart pacemaker is implanted by a surgeon, with the electrical leads stimulating the external surface of the stomach, is being tested in the USA. The electrical stimulation is thought to modify the activity of the Enteric nervous system in the stomach, which is then interpreted by the brain as a sense of satiety, or fullness. Early evidence suggests that it is less effective than other forms of Bariatric Surgery.electro stimulation

Sleeve Gastrectomy With Duodenal Switch

A variation of the biliopancreatic diversion includes a Duodenal switch. The part of the stomach along its greater curve is resected. The stomach is "tubulized" with a residual volume of about 150 ml. This volume reduction provides the food intake restriction component of this operation. This type of gastric resection is anatomically and functionally irreversible. The stomach is then disconnected from the duodenum and connected to the distal part of the small intestine. The duodenum and the upper part of the small intestine are reattached to the rest at about 75-100 cm from the colon.sleeve gastrectomy with duodenal switch

Mixed Procedures

Mixed procedures apply both techniques simultaneously.
1. Gastric Bypass:
Gastric bypass surgery makes the stomach smaller and allows food to bypass part of the small intestine. You will feel full more quickly than when your stomach was its original size, which reduces (see more on Gastric Bypass)

2. Sleeve Gastrectomy with Duodenal Switch:
A variation of the biliopancreatic diversion includes a Duodenal switch. The part of the stomach along its greater curve is resected. The stomach is (see more on Sleeve Gastrectomy with Duodenal Switch)

3. Implantable Gastric Stimulation:
This procedure where a device similar to a heart pacemaker is implanted by a surgeon, with the electrical leads stimulating the external surface of the stomach, is being tested in the USA. The electrical stimulation (see more on Implantable Gastric Stimulation)

Sleeve gastrectomy

Sleeve gastrectomy is a surgical weight-loss procedure in which the stomach is reduced to about 15% of its original size, by surgical removal of a large portion of the stomach, following the major curve. The open edges are then attached together (often with surgical staples) to form a sleeve or tube with a banana shape. The procedure permanently reduces the size of the stomach. The procedure is performed laparoscopically and is not reversible.
sleeve gastrectomy
Sleeve gastrectomy is usually performed on extremely obese patients, with a body mass index of 40 or more, where the risk of performing a gastric bypass or duodenal switch procedure may be too large. A two-stage procedure is performed: the first is a sleeve gastrectomy, and the second is a conversion into a gastric bypass or duodenal switch. Patients usually lose a large quantity of their excess weight after the first sleeve gastrectomy procedure alone, but if weight loss ceases the second step is performed.
For patients who are obese but not extremely obese, sleeve gastrectomy alone is a suitable operation with minimum risks. Some surgeons even prefer it over gastric banding, because it eliminates the need of having to insert a foreign body. The sleeve gastrectomy currently is acceptable weight loss surgery option for obese patients as a single procedure. Most surgeons prefer to use a bougie between 32 - 40 Fr with the procedure and the approximate remaining size of the stomach after the procedure is about 2 ounces.
Like any surgical operation, sleeve gastrectomy has possible complications, such as leakage, dilation of the sleeve (which allows for more food intake) and other usual complications associated with bariatric surgery. Patients are advised not to smoke after undergoing sleeve gastrectomy as smoking would cause serious complications.

Adjustable Gastric Band

A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band is a restrictive device implanted via bariatric surgery and designed for obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater—or between 35–40 in cases of patients with certain comorbidities that are known to improve with weight loss, such as sleep apnea, diabetes, osteoarthritis, or metabolic syndrome, among others. The gastric band is an inflatable silicone prosthetic device that is placed around the top portion of the stomach, usually via laparoscopic surgery. adjustable gastric bandingThe first gastric band was patented in 1985 by Obtech Medical of Sweden (now owned by J&J/Ethicon) and is known as the Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band (SAGB). An American company, INAMED Health, later designed the BioEnterics LAP-BAND Adjustable Gastric Banding System. The LAP-BAND System was introduced in Europe in 1993. Neither of these bands were initially designed for use with keyhole surgery. The LAP-BAND System received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use in the United States in June 2001. In 2000, the first lower pressure, wider, one-piece adjustable gastric band called the MIDband was introduced in Lyon France by Medical Innovation Development. In 2002, the first lower pressure, wider, one-piece adjustable gastric band called the Bioring was introduced in France by Cousin-Biotech. Unlike many of the early bands this was designed specifically for laparoscopic insertion. It has swiftly become one of the leading bands placed in France. There are now many band manufacturers (approx 7-8 in total).

Predominantly restrictive procedures

Predominantly restrictive procedures primarily reduces stomach size. It further includes:
1. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty
Vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), also known as stomach stapling, is a restrictive operation for weight control. Both a band (see more on Vertical Banded Gastroplasty)

2. Adjustable Gastric Band
A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band is a restrictive device implanted via bariatric surgery and designed for obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater—or between 35–40 in cases of patients (see more on Adjustable Gastric Band)

3. Sleeve Gastrectomy
Sleeve gastrectomy is a surgical weight-loss procedure in which the stomach is reduced to about 15% of its original size, by surgical removal of a large portion of the stomach, following the major curve. The open edges (see more on Sleeve Gastrectomy)

Jejuno-ileal bypass

Jejuno-ileal (JI) bypass is an obsolete bariatric surgery procedure. The term "jejuno-ileal" refers to two of the three parts of the small intestine. The jejunum is the very long middle portion of the small intestine, and the ileum is the shorter part at the end that empties into the large intestine.
JI bypass was performed by dividing the proximal jejunum and then plugging the top end of the jejunum into the ileum, much further down the small intestine. After the procedure, food would move from the stomach to the upper small intestine, then directly into the ileum, bypassing all of the absorptive areas of the jejunum. Thus, patients would eat a normal meal but would absorb only a small fraction of the calories it contained. jejuno ileal bypassThis procedure is no longer performed for two reasons. First, patients with no jejunum cannot effectively absorb some vitamins, especially vitamin B complex and vitamin C. This leads to severe malnutrition and liver failure.
The second problem also arose from the bypassed jejunum, which emptied normally downstream into the ileum but had no 'upstream' connection and hence no inflow of food or liquids from the stomach. The flow of liquid through the intestine is necessary to cleanse it; with no liquid flow, bacteria from the large intestine are free to grow and colonize the small intestine, all the way up to the blind end of the jejunum. This leads to sepsis by bacterial translocation, so effectively in fact that JI bypasses are used in the lab to create sepsis in animal experimental models.

Biliopancreatic diversion

Tbiliopancreatic diversionhis complex operation is also known as biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), or Scopinaro procedure. This surgery is rare now because of problems with malnourishment. It has been replaced with the Duodenal Switch, also known as the BPD/DS. Part of the stomach is resected, creating a smaller stomach (however after a few months the patient can eat a completely free diet as there is no restrictive component). The distal part of the small intestine is then connected to the pouch, bypassing the duodenum and jejunum. This results in around 2% of patients severe malabsorption and nutritional deficiency that requires restoration on the normal absorption.
The malabsorptive element of BPD is so potent that those who undergo the procedure must take vitamin and mineral supplements above and beyond that of the normal population. Those that do not run the risk of deficiency diseases such as anemia and osteoporosis.
Because gallstones are a common complication of rapid weight loss following any type of weight loss surgery, some surgeons may remove the gall bladder as a preventative measure during BPD. Others prefer to prescribe medication to reduce the risk of post-operative gallstones.
Far fewer surgeons perform BPD compared to other weight loss surgeries, in part because of the need for long-term nutritional follow-up and monitoring of BPD patients.

Predominantly Malabsorptive Procedures

Although these procedures reduce the size of stomach, these operations are effective and are based mainly on creating malabsorption. biliopancreatic diversion
It can be further divided into 2 categories:
1. Biliopancreatic Diversion:
This complex operation is also known as biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), or Scopinaro procedure. This surgery is rare now because of problems with malnourishment. It has (see more on Biliopancreatic Diversion)

2. Jejuno-Ileal Bypass:
Jjejuno ileal bypassejuno-ileal (JI) bypass is an obsolete bariatric surgery procedure. The term "jejuno-ileal" refers to two of the three parts of the small intestine. The jejunum is (see more on Jejuno-Ileal Bypass)

Classification of Bariatric Weight Loss Surgery Procedures

There are a number of surgical options available to treat obesitybariatric weight loss surgery procedures, each with their advantages and pitfalls. Generally Weight Loss can be accomplished through bariatric surgery , but one must consider operative risk (including mortality or death) and side effects. Usually, these procedures can be carried out safely.
Bariatric surgery can be grouped into 3 main categories.

A. Predominantly malabsorptive procedures
1. Biliopancreatic diversion
2. Jejuno-ileal bypass

B. Predominantly restrictive procedures
1. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty
2. Adjustable gastric band
3. Sleeve gastrectomy

C. Mixed procedures
1. Gastric bypass
2. Sleeve gastrectomy with duodenal switch
3. Implantable Gastric Stimulation

Weight Loss Surgery

Weight Loss Surgery, also known as Bariatric surgery, refers to the various surgical proceduresbariatric weight loss surgery performed to treat obesity and weight gain by modification of the gastrointestinal tract to reduce food intake and/or absorption that is to prevent from overeating. The term does not include procedures for surgical removal of body fat such as liposuction or abdominoplasty.
Bariatric surgery is for those individuals who have been unable to attain significant weight loss through diet changes and several exercise (or physical fitness) programs alone. It may help to achieve a more healthy body weight.

How Does Bariatric Surgery Affect The Digestive Process?
Before Surgery
Food is chewed in the mouth, then swallowed, passing through the esophagus to the stomach, (roughly the size of a melon) where stomach acids dissolve it into smaller particles. The liquid (chyme) then passes into the small intestine where enzymes and bile continue the digestive process. The first section is the duodenum, the shortest section. Here, calcium, iron and a few vitamins are absorbed. The second and third sections are the jejunum and ileum, both about ten feet in length. Here, the bulk of food nutrients (vitamins and minerals) and calories are absorbed. before surgery for weight lossAfter Surgery
During both main types of obesity surgery, the size of the stomach is reduced by up to 90 percent, to the size of an egg or even the size of a thumb. Typically, its capacity is 3-4 tablespoons of food. This stomach reduction drastically reduces the quantity of food which can be consumed in one sitting and speeds up satiety. During bypass surgery, the digestive tract below the stomach is also altered. After leaving the small stomach pouch, food is re-routed to bypass most of the duodenum and is directed into the final part of the jejunum. Because the food passes along a much reduced length of small intestine, and comes into contact with smaller amounts of digestive enzymes, fewer calories and nutrients are absorbed.
after weight loss surgeryHow much does Bariatric Weight Loss Surgery costs?
weight loss surgery costBariatric gastrointestinal surgical operations cost about $25,000 or more, depending on the experience of the surgeon, the medical team, the surgical procedure and the level of post-operational services chosen.

Jump Rope Workout

Jjump ropeumping rope is a great cardiovascular exercise (or "cardio") that not olny strengthens the heart and lungs but also enhances the continuous and rhythmic movement of large muscle groups. Cardio also improves our cardiovascular system's ability to deliver oxygen to the body.
Jumping rope is a great form of aerobic exercise that is easy to do and much fun as well. It mainly targets your muscles, especially calves, thighs, and buttocks and help your fitness coordination and agility. It can be practised at home and is not so expensive but most importantly it can burn off calories that best help you to lose weight. Also the skipping rope is portable, which could be a real help in case the gym centres aren't available. But let me say that Jumping rope "normally" will not help you that much as you are thinking of right now. Here are some of the few tips that can guide you in your weight loss journey:

1. First you should know what you are doing. So you should be menatlly as well as physically fit. Think before you start the jump.
2. Secondly wear loose clothes and comfortable shoes. Keep your shoulders reljump rope workoutaxed and your upper arms close to your body. Don't use your arms, but use your wrists to turn the rope (like in cricket, the batsman used to hit the ball by wrists) and try to keep them as low as possible to minimize the strain when landing on the ground. Also keep your back straight as possible as you can and your stomach pulled in.
3. It would be a lot better if you begin by grasping the handles in hands tightly and relaxing the middle of the rope at your ankles (legs), with both the hands at your sides.
4. Then the next thing you should do is swing the rope over your head in a forwardly directed motion, keeping your feet together jump over the rope. Jump as much as you can and rest for a while. You can increase your speed level to maximum if you do this more constantly. This will also make you feel more comfortable.
5. If you do this jumping workout regularly then it's sure that your fitness level will increase. Now you can also have some variations while you are jumping, like for example, hopping on one foot, and then the other one.
6. Don't jump too high. If you do so then your feet might be quite high from the ground which increases your chances of getting strain when landing on the ground. Besides you will be jumping for a longer time if you keep your feet in close contact with the ground.
Lastly I wan't to say that jumping workout is a very effective tool for weight loss. 15 minutes everyday is good, but if you want to lose weight quickly, then add some running and cycling to your routine.

Weight Loss Exercise

In my earlier days, I used to be a one hell of a lousy girl sleeping all day long and my weight loss exercisemama used to tell me "Get your ass off the bed and ready for exercise" and she kept yelling at me. The funny thing was that I always had to start the conversations about exercise with "I can't do that because....". But now I have realized what my mama used to tell me. So I want to notify all of you that losing lousiness is the first, but important step in losing weight. I want to clearify you all that "The more regularly you exercise the more you lose weight and vice versa." You might say with proper diet and weight loss program, you can lose weight easily. But exercise can give you better result. So why not exercise? Besides exercise is one very important part of weight loss program (see more on Weight Loss Program).

Exercise can be both heavy and light. Light exercise is always better for those who had never exercise for their whole entire life. Taking that first step might be difficult but with necessary motivation and courage to tackle the challenges you could easily lose weight and manage it (see more on Weight Loss Management).
Now Why exercise?
The answer is simple, "to lose weight"
But How exercise help in losing weight?
Well, Exercise can help you in two different ways:
1. By increasing your metabolism:
Metabolism is the natural process of burning calorie. It even occurs while you are sleeping. So if you can increase your metabolic rate then you can surely lose some extra pounds. By exercising the metabolic rate can be higher which can help to burn off those extra calories and help weight loss.

2. By increasing the muscle strength:
By Exercising one can gain more muscle and increase the muscle strength. Now you might wonder what is the relation between muscle and weight loss. Well I have developed a relation between them which is like:
Yeah!!! More muscle implies higher rate of metabolism and more number of calories burned. So the more you regularly exercise the more will be your metabolic rate and calorie burning process will be faster. So the theme of exercise will be "GET MORE MUSCLE". Thus we can say that building muscle is one of the basic foundation for losing weight and staying lean.

So far we have come to know that losing weight is nothing but burning more calories than we consume throughout the day. We now also know that this can be achieved by exercising. But yet people find it difficult. Most often people don't know that what type of exercise program is the best for losing weight. At this point of time, you should consult to your health care team or physical trainer. They can help you to burn fat and decrease calories but still consuming the foods you enjoy. They can motivate you by providing you the right direction and new strategies.
exercise to lose weightFrom the above discussion we can now conclude that, one of the best ways to upgrade your metabolic rate and at the same time gain more muscle, thus helping to lose weight is to do more and more exercise. Do more exercise regularly and consistently with the proper motivation from your trainer and I can guarantee you that at last your hard work will surely make you look lean and healthy by losing that extra pounds of weight.

Weight loss Diet

We know that weight loss means gaining muscle and losing fat or burninhealthy weight loss dietg calories (see more on Weight Loss). One of the way you can achieve this is by eating correctly. Eating correctly not only means the right amount of calories but also the right amount of proteins (see more on Protein Weight Loss), fats and carbohydrates. The diet that you consume daily plays a vital role in the successful fat loss program.
For losing fat, you have to eat correctly. You should not starve yourself. You should not skip meals and go on a "crash diet". If you do so, your body metabolism slows. Metabolism is the natural process of burning calories(energy). It even occurs when you are at rest. When you eat little your metabolism falls. This is because your body is getting little nourishment, that means, low calories. So your body have to conserve more energy and use less of that energy. So naturally your metabolic rate decreases which is not the good thing for you. Because your metabolism determines the rate of burning calories. So slower the metabolism, slower the burning process of calorie, and slower is the process of weight loss. So don't ever think of skipping your meals, especially your breakfast. It can cost you a pounds of weight.

crash dietsEat frequently and regularly:
Like I said earlier, do not skip meals. So what's the solution?
The solution is simply "eat" and nothing else. Most often people eat 3 meals per day, breakfast, lunch and dinner. But it doesn't provide you the adequate amount of nutrients and energy that your body needs to increase your metabolism and burn fat. Ideally saying, you should strive upto 5-6 meals evenly spaced throughout the day.
Here's an example of my weight loss diet schedule
Time Meal
8 am Whey protein powder, vitamin C (1,000mg)
9 am Workout
10:30 am Meal [egg white omlette] with Glutamine, and vitamin C
1:30 pm Meal 3 [5oz chicken breast, 1 cup of brown rice, small salad]
4:30 pm Meal 4 [snack]
7:30 pm Meal 5 [6oz of tuna, 1 cup of vegetables]
10:30 pm Whey protein powder, vitamin C and Glutamine

Eat Fewer Calories:
Yweight loss dietour diet should have mild calorie deficit. That means your body should burn off more calories than you take in. When your body has used all the food calories for energy, then it should turn to your fat cells for energy. But without resistance training and regular exercise to stimulate muscle growth, and diet manipulation to prevent muscle loss, your body will turn to using muscle cells for energy instead of fat cells. So by eating mild calories along with consistent exercise and resistance training you can easily lose weight (see more on Weight Loss Exercise).
If you think this is enough then you are wrong. There are lots of other things to consider like for example, eating proteins, fiber-rich foods (see more on Fiber Weight Loss), fruits and vegetables (see more on Fruits and Vegetables), and so on.

Grapefruit Weight Loss

The grapefruit is a sub-tropical citrus tree mostly grown for its fruit which was grapefruit treeoriginally given the name as "forbidden fruit " of Barbados. These evergreen trees are usually 5-6 m tall, although they can reach 13-15 m. The leaves are dark green, long (up to 150 mm) and thin. It produces 5 cm white four-petalled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned, largely oblate and ranges in diameter from 10-15 cm . The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white, pink and red pulps of varying sweetness.
Now you might wonder what will be the effect of grapefruit on weight loss?
According to researchers at Scripps Clinic in California, eating half a grapefruit before each meal may help you lose weight up to one pound a week. Grapefruit is low in calories, low in sodium, high in potassium and high in fat burning enzymes helping weight loss in different ways. As the food in low calories is very much helpful for weight loss, so grapefruit also plays some vital role. Also a low sodium intake helps in flushing away excess water weight caused from high sodium foods. And, the fat-burning enzymes present in grapefruit help in increasing the fat burning process which is the main aim of weight loss.
Thewoman drinking grapefruit juice research at Scripps Clinic in California was led by Dr. Ken Fujioka, MD. He studied the importance of grapefruit in weight and metabolic factors, such as insulin secretion. Of the 100 men and women who participated in that "Grapefruit Diet" study, it was found that on average, those who participants who ate half a grapefruit with each meal lost 3.7 pounds, while those who drank a serving of grapefruit juice 3 times a day lost 3.3 pounds. From the research, Dr. Fujioka concluded that grapefruit helps to regulate insulin, a fat storing hormone. And anything that helps in loweing insulin help people to lose weight. Thus, Grapefruit reduce insulin levels and encourage weight loss.
Another advantage of eating grapefruit is it's high water content. Water covers almost 90 percent of grapefruit. And eating any food with high water content can help you lose weight (see more on Water Weight Loss)
This is my diet plan that can work out for you.
1. Either 1/2 grapefruit OR 8 oz. juice (unsweetened)
2. 2 eggs any style
3. 2 slices of bacon grapefruit weight loss
1. Either 1/2 grapefruit OR 8 oz. juice (unsweetened)
2. Salad with any dressing
3. Meat any style and any amount.
1. Either 1/2 grapefruit OR 8 oz. juice (unsweetened)
2. Salad with any dressing OR a red or green vegetable cooked in butter or spices.
3. Meat or even Fish any style cooked any way.
4. Coffee or Tea (1 cup)
Bedtime Snack:
1. 8oz. glass of tomato juice or 8 oz cup of skim milk.
This is it. Drink grapefruit diet, lose weight and stay healthy forever!!!

Green Tea Weight Loss

Recently there's been a lot of news regarding green tea and weiggreen tea weight lossht loss. But is there any scientific basis for green tea weight loss (see more on Weight Loss) claim?
Does green tea really work or it is just the hype?
I have gone through many websites and finally gathered some useful information that you might look into. There are mainly 5 proven ways that green tea may assist you in weight loss.
1. By Increasing metabolism:
According to the study reported in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, green tea can raise your metabolism which means rate of calorie(energy) burning process is higher and rate of weight loss will be also higher(see more on increasing your metabolism). The research had also concluded that over a 1 day time(24 hour period), green tea extract increases the metabolic rate by 3-4%. These slimming effects of green tea are probably because of high concentrations of polyphenols found in the green tea. That means green tea increases the energy expenditure and helps your body to burn more fat.

2. By Inhibiting fat digestion and absorption:
Studies have shown that green tea extract can inhibit the fat-digesting lipase enzymes found in the stomach and pancreas. When these fat-digesting enzymes are inhibited, consumption of excess fat calories can be avoided, thus assisting in weight loss. Reportedly, green tea has also been found to improve the way that your body makes use of fat.

3. By regulating the body's glucose:
Green tea has also been found valuable in regulating the body's glucose by slowing the rise in blood sugar, specially after a meal. As a glucose regulator, green tea prevents high insulin spikes, which leads to fat storage. Further, green tea also slows down the action of amylase(a digestive enzyme). Amylase diffuses starch into carbohydates, which is the main cause why blood sugar level rise after a meal. Thus by slowing down amylase's action, green tea helps in weight loss.

green tea extract weight lossThe catechins (polyphenols) in the green tea also suppress the passage of glucose into fat cells.A substance called Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG), a catechin polyphenol found in Green Tea, is credited for this effect. EGCG is similar to vitamin-E. However it is considered many times more powerful anti-oxidant than vitamin-E. As an anti-oxidant EGCG lowers cholesterol, prevents lipogenesis, promotes fat oxidation, encourages good health, also fight dental cavities and is an anti-carcinogenic as well as an anti-bacterium.

4. By boosting exercise capacity
It has also been reportedgreen tea supplement for weight loss that green tea enhance exercise endurance by increasing the utilization of fatty acids as a source of energy during exercise. An experiment regarding green tea and exercise capacity was performed by some Japnese scientists with mice. They noted that when these mice were given green tea extract, their exercise capacity increased substantially. Further, on camparing these mice with the other mice, they ran 28% longer before getting tired. Additionally, the supplemented mice displayed signs of increased fat oxidation. From these findings they concluded that Green tea boosts exercise (see more on Weight Loss Exercise) capacity and fat-burning ability ultimately helping in weght loss.

5. By reducing appetite
Accoding to some scientists at the University of Chicago, green tea causes to lose your appetite. They performed experiment with rats again. Green tea caused rats to lose up to 21% of their total body weight. Mice(rats) injected with a green tea extract lost their appetites and consumed upto 60% less food after a weekly(7 days) daily injections.

How much green tea should I drink?
Many experts argue about this. The opinion varies from expert to expert. Some say that drinking 4-5 cups of green tea per day can best help you lose weight. While some say that this much caffeine is too bad for your general health. But If you really want to give a shot, then go for it. It would be better if you talk to your doctor or dietician first to find the amount that would be right for you.

green tea and weight lossShould I drink the tea or can I just take a pill?
There are lots of green tea supplements in the town that you can take. Many people believe that drinking green tea is far better than taking the supplement if you want to get the full health benefits. One of the main drawbacks for weight loss is that one can't get the filling effect from the pill that he/she can by drinking green tea. I would recommend you to ask your dietician about this.
green tea for weight lossIs green tea weight loss permanent?
Everything in this world has some limits. Like with all other diets, you will be losing weight at the beginning of a green tea weight loss program and then reach a limit beyond which it is extremely hard to lose weight. But Green tea with its slimming effects can be one part of a healthy diet which helps you to maintain a healthy weight (see more on Weight Loss Management).

Smoking and Weight Loss

Chain smokers and people who have smoked for a long persmoking weight lossiod of time often gain extra pounds after they quit smoking. The average weight gain is between 4.5 and 7 pounds, but a very small percentage of former heavy smokers gain 25 pounds or more! Unfortunately, most of the smokers often use this fact for continuing to smoke. But this weight gain isn't inevitable.

Following are some of the reasons why people gain weight after quitting smoking:

1.Metabolic rate falls:
The nicotine present in the cigarettes raises the metabolic rate of smokers, which increases the rate of calorie burning process(see more on increasing your metabolism). Now when you quit smoking your body metabolism decreases down to a healthy level. It may even slow down more before getting back to normal level. Meanwhile, due to the slow metabolic rate, your body will burn off fewer calories, which causes people to gain weight.

2.Changes in eating habits:
Bsmoking weight lossesides the metabolic reason, another very important reason for increase in weight is due to change in your diet. Studies have shown that after quitting smoking, your appetite increase. People who have just stopped smoking are inclined to eat more because they search for other snacks as a substitute for cigarettes. Studies have also shown that after quitting smoking, your desire for sweet and fatty foods increases, and we all know that these sugary foods are rich in calories, which causes weight gain (see more on Weight Loss Diet).
Another reason for the inclination to eat more is because your senses of taste and smell imporve and then only return to normal. After quitting, studies have also shown that food tastes better.

3.Oral Gratification (Feeling the Need to Have Something in Your Mouth)
Most ex-smokers often say that after quitting smoking, they miss the feeling of having something in their mouth. So they start to eat some other snacks which fulfills their requirement. Some smokers keep their hands and mouth busy with objects like straws or toothpicks. While some chew foods like carrots, celery or even sugar-free mints.
smoking weight lossQuitting smoking is difficult enough without the fear of gaining weight. The primary reason that people gain weight when they quit smoking is that they tend to eat more, and you can control that. If you can keep from turning to food in place of cigarettes, and make a few adjustments to your eating and exercise habits (see more on Weight Loss Exercise), you won't have to gain any weight at all.